Machines which turn heat energy to mechanic energy is called engine (motor)
According to fuels Diesel engine fuel engine and
According to cylinders series type , v type,
star type and boxer type motors.
According to cooling system,water
cooling and air cooling
According to combustion system
internal combustion engine and outside
combustion engine In vehicles engines are
internal combustion engine. It works with fuel
oil or diesel oil.
Some parts of the ignition systems in petrol
ignition system is forgotten as open in ignition
conditions distributor of engine
points or bobbins will be burnt. Some parts must
be changed after determined kilometres. some of
them are distributor of engine points and spark
plugs.Ignition systems turns are spark plug turn
distributor of engine points turns.
Some parts of the fuel systems in petrol
bazıları şunlardır: fuel depot, feeding pump,
engine filter, injection pump ,injection ,
heating spark plugs and fuel indicator
Function of air filter :To filter the air which get into carburator.Clean with pressure air for prevent to stopped the air filter.
Carburator,it is on the induction manifold and only be in petrol engine To set the oetrol air mixture.
Choke ,supply working of engine easily in cold weathers. It is in carburator
Oil filter filter and clean the oil
Exhaust silencer,to decrease the voice of gases which out loudly.
For preparing the vehicle winter conditions is taking air filter in winter mode
During fuel filling engine must be stopped.
If there is dust water etc in fuel engine works as missing
If motor stops when getting hot carburator will be checked
For fuel consumption during driving
Parts of the system:
Carter casr fuel pump
Some duties of oil in engine :
Carter Case is be depot for oil and closed under of the engine block
During the checking of engine oil close the starter key and wait 4-5 minutes. Oil level must be between two lane of oil dipstick If start the engine when level of oil is too low as normal motor is getting too hot and burnt
Motor must be hot whilw changing the oil.
Usually use 20-50 W number oils in engines .
Engine oil and oil filter must be changed in determined km's
If there is no oil pressure in engine
Some parts of watered cooling system
Radiator,is the depot of cooling water
Thermostat is in cylinder top. to fix motor heat as working heat
Circulation pomp is taking their acts from ventilator band
In air cooliing engines there is no radiator and water pump.
Ventilator band is as V shape.It's stretch must be 1-1.5 cm .If ventilator belt is tear engine have heat
If water level decrease in cooling system
cylinder cover seal is out of order or radiator
Reasons of engine heat
->Closed of radiator cellular
Water level is above of celluar which will be fill in radiator
To add warm and lacking in lime water to very hot engine while running at an idle
Radiator water must be clean water
To add antifreeze to radiator for prevent from freezing
March system gives the first act to engine
If march starter is not act in the march
If march engine doesnt work or horn when push the march , problem will be in battery or axle tops
If battery consolidate with another battery positive axle tops join positive ones and negative axle tops join with negative ones. Both batteries must have the same voltage
In digital indicators there is no battery consılidates.
Pushing time of march is 10-15 second. Battery will ends if push more than this.
electric charge System
, is the system that supply electricity
needs of vehicles and be electric charge
Alternator, change mechanical energy as electrical energy
Regulator, set the volt and current which produced by alternator
electric charge Lamp,
to warn that electric charge
electric charge system supply the electic energy for vehicles.
Battery feeds lights and special electrical receivers when engine doent work
Tear in ventilator band understand from electric charge warning lamp firstly
In lighting system there are , fuse , cables , fars , parking lights , fog lamps, number plate lamps ,indicator lamps etc.
In warning system there are , signals, brake warning ligths reversing lights and horns
Failures of this system:
Brake gauge is a part of warning system
If one of or all of fars do not lightened there will be blow of fuse.
Signal lamp doesnt lightened if flasher is out of order
If there is blowing of fuse to use same ampere fuse
If far key is out of order fars do not lightened.
Power transfer system organs :
Clutch , gear box , shaft , differantial , axles and wheels.
Differantial ,rise the power to transfer the acts to wheels as broken 90 degree angle supply easy turnings in curves.
Clutch is cut the connection between gear box and engine and to supply gear changes.
Axles,to transfer differantial acts to wheels
Gear box,is set the vehicles power and speed.
If push the clutch regularly during driving clutch is erosion.
If clutch cable is break away vehicles do not engage gear easily.
During change gear push the clutch
Wheels must be changed in every 6 months or in every 10.000 km's for to equalize erosion.
Vibration will be occur if there is failure in the balance of wheels. This viberations mostly feel in steering wheel.
to release hand while changing wheels.
Tyre chain must be put on for both wheels in snowy winters.
Numbers which are written on the wheels are the size of wheels.
Parking brakes are use to fix the car which is stopped. If forget the parking brakes on brakes doesnt work.
There are 3 types of brakes:
There are 3 types of foot brake:
Some parts of brake system :
In air brake vehicles air tubes and air pump are also in additional above.
Advantages of ABS brake is ,brakes do not change driving control and be shorter brake distances.
Front and back brakes stopped together when push the foot brake
If vehicles works but do not act check the parking brake.
Vehicles can be draw aside if one of front wheel is new and the other one is old
In Westinghouse brake type cars when the engine stps during vehicle acted brakes are never working.
Suspension system is a system that where vehicles body and wheels connected. araç tekerlerinin aracın şasi ve gövdesiyle birleştirildiği sistemdir. Coil springs springs and dampers are the parts of this system
Springs are checked by dampers
In daily control engine oil engine water brake hydraulic fuel ,wheel pressure and lighting - warning systems must be checked.
In weekly control laxity of ventilator band and battery must be checked.
During battery maintanence clean the axle tops and outer of battery with hot and sodium carbonate water. Add pure water 1cnm above of plates. Be completelty charged battry im winters for not to freeze.
If battery ends by itself there are dusts top of the battery
In diesel motors just fill cylinder with air
In diesel motors in fuel system one of the
control must be done is taking fuel system water
from filter or fuel depot.
Combustion in diesel motors occurs as spraying fuel from injector.
Injection pump , send the oil to injections with the feeding pump.
If engine have air doesnt work Reasons of
having air are :
In diesel engines if exhaust color is black to check the fuel pump injector or air filter In cold weathers for driving engine easily use sparking plugs