Motor Vehicle Tecnique Lesson Summary

Machines which turn heat energy to mechanic energy is called engine (motor)

According to fuels Diesel engine fuel engine and LPG engine
 

According to cylinders series type , v type, star type and boxer type motors.
 

According to cooling system,water cooling and air cooling
 

According to combustion  system  internal combustion engine and outside combustion engine In vehicles engines are internal combustion engine. It works with fuel oil or diesel oil.
According to working times two cycle motor and four cycle motors.


IGNITION SYSTEM

Some parts of the ignition systems in petrol engine:
Battery, starter key, induction coil, distributor, distributor of engine points high and low tension cables,condenser and distribution bobbins. 

 If ignition system is forgotten as open in ignition conditions   distributor of engine points or bobbins will be burnt. Some parts must be changed after determined kilometres. some of them are distributor of engine points and spark plugs.Ignition systems turns are spark plug turn distributor of engine points turns.
If there is vibration while engine workings reason of it is getting out  one of spark plugs.
If spark plugs in not setting motor doesnt work very well
If spark plugs setting is made wrongly colour of exhaust is black. Also if exhaust is black check the mixture level.

FUEL SYSTEM

Some parts of the fuel systems in petrol engine:
fuel depot ,fuel pump, fuel indicator ,carburator air filter and induction manifold

parçalarından bazıları şunlardır: fuel depot, feeding pump, engine filter, injection pump ,injection , heating spark plugs and fuel indicator
 

Function of air filter :To filter the air which get into carburator.Clean with pressure air for prevent to stopped the air filter. 

Carburator,it is on the induction manifold and only be in petrol engine To set the oetrol air mixture.

Choke ,supply working of engine easily in cold weathers. It is in carburator

Oil filter filter and clean the oil 

 

Exhaust silencer,to decrease the voice of gases which out loudly.

For preparing the vehicle winter conditions is taking air filter in winter mode 

During fuel filling engine must be stopped.

 

If there is dust water etc in fuel engine works as missing

If motor stops when getting hot carburator will be  checked 

 

For fuel consumption during driving
 

Clean air filter
Set carburator
Do not forget choke open
Idling must not be high
Clean old spark plugs
Wheel pressure must be normal
Brake settings not be tight
To drive in best gear
Not to drive faster than 90/100 km
 

 

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

Parts of the system:

Carter casr fuel pump
Filter,
Indicators,
Oil dipstick,
Oil canals.

Some duties of oil in engine :

To decrease friction
To prevent erosion
To supply imperviousness
To help cooling
To clean dirties which are made up of erosions.
 

Carter Case is be depot for oil and closed under of  the engine block

During the checking of engine oil  close the starter key and wait 4-5 minutes. Oil level must be between two lane of oil dipstick If start the engine when level of oil is too low as normal motor is getting too hot and burnt  

Motor must be hot whilw changing the oil. 

Usually use 20-50 W number oils in engines .

Engine oil and oil filter must be changed in determined km's

If there is no oil pressure in engine
No oil
filter is closed
Oil pump is out of order ,
or oil gauge is out of order.

 

COOLING SYSTEM

Some parts of  watered cooling system

Radiator ,
Ventilator,
Circulation pump ,
Thermostat,
Heat indicator ,
Heat gage,
Additional jug ,
Fan motor.

Radiator,is the depot of cooling water

Thermostat is in cylinder top. to fix motor heat as working heat

Circulation pomp is taking their acts from ventilator band

In air cooliing engines there is no radiator and water pump.

Ventilator band is as  V shape.It's stretch must be 1-1.5 cm .If  ventilator belt is tear engine  have heat 

If water level decrease in cooling system

cylinder cover seal is out of order or radiator have hole
radiator cover is out of order
radiator hose is out of order or have hole 
thermostat is out of order

Reasons of engine heat

->Closed of radiator cellular
->Decrease the water level of radiator
->thermostat will be out of order
->Decrease level of engine oil
->Closing of engine cooling water canals.
->Not to drive best speed and best gear
->Automatic fan is out of order

Water level is above of celluar which will be fill in radiator

To add warm and lacking in lime water to very hot engine while running at an idle

Radiator water must be clean water 

If engine is gettion too hot although it have water , thermostat will be out of order

To add antifreeze to radiator for prevent from freezing

 

MARCH SYSTEM

March system gives the first act to engine

Parts:

-Battery,
-Starter Key ,
-march engine ,
-Steering wheel gear

If march starter is not act in the march condition :
battey ends,
battery axle tops are idle ,
battery axle tops are oxidize
March automatic will be out of order ,
 

 

 If march engine doesnt work or horn when push the march , problem will be in battery or axle tops

If battery consolidate with another battery positive axle tops join positive ones and negative axle tops join with negative ones. Both batteries must have the same voltage

In digital indicators there is no battery consılidates.

Pushing time of march is 10-15 second. Battery will ends if push more than this.

ELECTRIC CHARGE  SYSTEM

electric charge System , is the system that supply electricity needs of vehicles and be electric charge
d the battery

Parts

alternator,
regulator
electric charge lamp
ventilator band.

Alternator, change mechanical energy as electrical energy

Regulator, set the volt and current which produced by alternator

electric charge Lamp, to warn that electric charge
 system is not working

electric charge  system supply the electic energy for vehicles.

Battery feeds lights and special electrical receivers when engine doent work

Tear in ventilator band understand from electric charge warning lamp firstly

 

LIGHTING AND WARNING SYSTEM

In lighting system there are , fuse , cables , fars , parking lights , fog lamps, number plate lamps  ,indicator lamps etc.

In warning system there are , signals, brake warning ligths reversing lights and horns

Failures of this system:
Short circuit
Cable tearaways
end of battery ,
battery axle tops oxidize or laxitys
bulb burnt,
blowing of fuse
failures in keys

Brake gauge is a part of warning system

If one of or all of fars do not lightened there will be blow of fuse.

Signal lamp doesnt lightened if flasher is out of order

If there is blowing of fuse to use same  ampere fuse 

If far key is out of order fars do not lightened.

I

POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM

Power transfer system organs :

Clutch , gear box , shaft , differantial , axles and wheels.

Differantial ,rise the power to transfer the acts to wheels as broken 90 degree angle supply easy turnings in curves.

Clutch is cut the connection between gear box and engine and to supply gear changes.

Axles,to transfer differantial acts to wheels 

Gear box,is set the vehicles power and speed.

If push the clutch regularly during driving clutch is erosion.

If clutch cable is break away vehicles do not engage gear easily. 

During change gear push the clutch

WHEELS

Wheels must be changed in every 6 months or in every 10.000 km's for to equalize erosion.

Vibration will be occur if there is failure in the balance of wheels. This viberations mostly feel in steering wheel.

Not to release hand while changing wheels.

To check wheels pressure before get in to the vehicle.

Tyre chain must be put on for both wheels in snowy winters.

Numbers which are written on the wheels are the size of wheels.

 

BRAKES

Parking brakes are use to fix the car which is stopped. If forget the parking brakes on brakes doesnt work. 

There are 3 types of brakes:

-Engine brake
-Foot brake
-Hand brake

There are 3 types of foot brake:
-Hydraulic brake
-Air brake
-Mixed brake

Some parts of brake system :

-Brake pedal
-Central Pump
-Brake Pipes
-Wheels cylinders
-Brake disc
-Brake pad
-Brake Drum
-Brake adjust system

In air brake vehicles air tubes and air pump are also in additional above.

Advantages of ABS brake is ,brakes do not change driving control and be shorter brake distances.

Front and back brakes stopped together when push the foot brake

If vehicles works but do not act check the parking brake.

Vehicles can be draw aside if one of front wheel is new and the other one is old

In Westinghouse brake type cars when the engine stps during vehicle acted brakes are never working. 

 

SUSPENSION SYSTEM

Suspension system is a system that where vehicles body and wheels connected. araç tekerlerinin aracın şasi ve gövdesiyle birleştirildiği sistemdir. Coil springs springs and dampers are the parts of this system

Springs are checked by dampers

MAINTANENCE

In daily control engine oil engine water brake hydraulic fuel ,wheel  pressure and lighting - warning systems must be checked.

In weekly control laxity of ventilator band and battery must be checked. 

During battery maintanence clean the axle tops and outer of battery with  hot and sodium carbonate water. Add pure water 1cnm above of plates. Be completelty charged battry im winters for not to freeze.

If battery ends by itself there are dusts top of the battery

 

SOME INFORMATIONS ABOUT DIESEL ENGINES

In diesel motors just fill cylinder with air

In diesel motors in fuel system one of the control must be done is taking fuel system water from filter or fuel depot.
 

Combustion in diesel motors occurs as spraying fuel from injector.

Injection pump , send the oil to injections with the feeding pump.

If engine have air doesnt work Reasons of having air  are :
-end of fuel
-Laxities in pipes
-come off fuel pipes
-clean or changins in filter

In diesel engines if exhaust color is black to check the fuel pump injector or air filter In cold weathers for driving engine easily use sparking plugs


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